Indoor positioning using smartphones

Currently, GPS is the most used navigation system for outdoors. It provides location, altitude and speed through GPS satellites and it offers an accuracy down to a few meters. However, the accuracy of the system in indoors is bad, which makes it useless for navigation and positioning in this environment. 

Today smartphones have full GPS capability onboard but it is also useless for indoor navigation. Nevertheless, the combination of other connectivity capabilities such are WiFi or 3G with the built-in motion and position sensors offers many possibilities for the future of indoor positioning. In this post I will discuss some of the techniques that can be used for indoor positioning taking advantage of the smartphones capabilities. 

Distance and bearing

The first approach consist off determining the distance and bearing (angle between two points measured in a clockwise direction from the north line) between two points. The distance and bearing could be calculated through the A-GPS, a set of location sensors that combines GPS location, network positioning and cellular positioning. The figure below shows how to determine the angle between two points. However, this approach is not useful using the A-GPS because of its bad accuracy of location in indoors (10m).  location by triangulation using several WiFi or blueetoth hotspots.

Bearing

Distance and bearing using WiFi and Blueetoth hotspots (requieres additional installation)

This method requieres the installation of WiFi or Blueetoth transmitter every few meters. Distance and bearing can be approximated based on the relationship between transmitted and received signal strength. The problem of this solution is that accuracy is significantly impacted by reflection and absorption from walls. Moreover, measurements can be extremely noisy so there is a lot of ongoing research focused on making more accurate systems by using statistics to filter out the inaccurate input data.wifiBluetooth

Integration of the acceleration

The second approach uses the double integration of the linear acceleration (acceleration of the device minus the acceleration due to gravity) to measure position, like the following equation shows. However, double integration amplifies acceleration noise so fast. The acceleration readings from the smartphone’s sensors are very noisy, making this approach useless for most of the systems.

position integration

Inertial measurements

The third approach consists of the development of algorithms based on the detection of steps and heading directions while walking. The positioning might be reliable using the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors, and with an accurate estimation of the step length.

Currently, this seems the best approach for reliable indoor positioning using only smartphones and without any additional installation. This system is  specially useful if the measurement of the steps is referred to maps or additional sensors (using sensor fusion)  to constrain the inherent sensor drift encountered with inertial navigation.

inertialMeasurements

Smartphones in healthcare

Today’s smartphones are devices with advanced computing capabilities and connectivity which also have a wide range of built-in sensors. These features make the smartphones a good platform for telehealth,  health-related services and information via telecommunications.

Using smartphones and communication networks it is possible for practitioners and patients to collect remote aggregate health data, provide care via mobile telemedicine, and real-time monitoring of patients. Different systems have been developed, that take advantage of the new technologies and devices.

Autodiagnosis and telemedicine

  • Poket Doc is like having a doctor in your pocket. It allows you to search for and compare information about health services and pricing based on location, condition or a doctor’s speciality.
  • Scanadu (available in 2014) is an app connected with a scanner device packet with sensors to check the temperature, heart rate, oximetry, ecg wave, heart’s beats, pulse, urine analysis and stress. The app keeps the report with all the information and it contacts to the doctor in case of emergency.
  • uCheck analyzes the urine. Users have to purchase a kit containing urine test strips that can be visually analyzed with the iPhone’s camera.
  • Mango Health lets patients monitor their use of medications by setting up schedules for taking their medication. When it is time to take the medications, it reminds them through notifications.

Scanadu

Patient monitoring

  • Asthmapolis is connected with a sensor that patients can place on the inhaler. The app collects all the data and information. It is used by doctors to monitor asthma symptoms and create the patients report.
  • Dr. Diabetes provides diabetes awareness, monitoring and management to patients with chronic illness. It provides medical data (via the cloud) to physicians for accurate diagnosis.
  • AirStrip allows doctors check in on patients and review their vitals, cardiac waveforms, medications, intakes and outputs, and allergies. The phone is connected to a bedside monitor and send the collected data to doctors or caregivers through cellular or Wi-Fi connection.
  • GI Monitor is an app that helps patients with Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis track their symptoms and provide accurate data to physicians for optimal treatment. Data is synchronized across all platforms in real-time and users can print out easy-to-read reports for their physicians.
  • RheumaTrack is a patient diary app which record pain on the VAS scale. Patients have to record their pain, use of medication and activities. All this information is useful for the doctors.

Asthmapolis