A Passive Optical Network (PON) is a point-to-multipoint, fiber to the premises network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises, typically 16-128.
A PON consists of an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) at the service provider’s central office and a number of Optical Network Units (ONUs) near end users. It reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared to point to point architectures. A passive optical network is a form of fiber-optic access network. GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) deals with optical communications a Gigabit level providing more symetric traffic and efficient resources utilization.