The pool of available IPv4 adresses is depleted because of Internet demographics, the expansion of Internet connected devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets), the always-on connection devices (ADSL/cable routers) and the inefficient address use. This problem has been a concern since 80s, when Internet started to growth dramatically, so some technologies have been designed to help to slow the exhastion such as classful networks, CIDR methods, and NAT. However, the accepted and standard solution is to use IPv6, which has many more adresses available.
IPv6 is the protocol currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. IPv6 provides a substantially larger IP address space than IPv6 and has new characteristics:
- IPsec mandatory to provide encryption and authentication.
- Simplified processing in routers due to fixed header, checksum removed, no fragmetnation and TTL.
- Jumbograms through higher lenght limit than IPv4 (64kB to 4GB).
- End-to-end connectivity
Nowadays, migration to IPv6 is in progress, but completion is expected to take considerable time. However, the sooner we implement IPv6, the better profits in ICT we will have: IPv6 is a must!